Synchrotron X-ray Topography Laboratory
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY

Dr. Balaji Raghothamachar

Contact:
Old Engineering Building, Room 310
Dept of Materials Science & Engineering
Stony Brook University
NY 11794-2275

braghoth@notes.cc.sunysb.edu
Phone: (631) 632 4183
Fax: (631) 632 8052

Past Research Projects
Journal Publications
Proceedings
Conference Presentations
Education

I am a research scientist at the Synchrotron X-ray Topography Laboratory in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at Stony Brook University. My research interests are in the area of:

  • X-ray topography
  • High resolution x-ray diffraction
  • Crystal Growth & Defects
  • Synthesis of nanomaterials
  • Wide bandgap semiconductors (AlN, GaN, SiC)
  • Solar cell materials
  • Packaging of integrated circuits.
Current Research Projects

National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project “UV radiation assisted CVD of III-Nitride Functional Nanostructures” for growing functional nanostructures of nitride materials.

Saint Gobain Crystals sponsored project on “Characterization of technologically important materials” to develop radiation detection and photonic materials.

Department of Energy (DOE)/ National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) sponsored research project “SWBXT Studies of Grain Size, Orientation and Strain in Multicrystalline silicon Ingots, Bricks and Wafers and Investigation of the Distribution of Impurities” in collaboration with BP Solar.

Intel sponsored project on “Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography for In-situ Silicon Stress Analysis and Dynamic Dehavior of Edge Defects” to study stresses and damage incurred in silicon dies for microelectronic chips during the fabrication and packaging process



Past Research Projects

Office of Naval Research sponsored Multi-University Research Initative (MURI) program "Growth of Bulk Wide Bandgap Nitrides and Wafering" for producing substrates of wide bandgap nitride semiconductors (AlN, GaN).

Crystal IS Inc. sponsored project on characterization of growth defects in bulk aluminum nitride crystals grown by the sublimation-recondensation technique.

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project with Fairfield Crystals Inc. for developing the sublimation method for growing bulk AlN crystals.

NSF sponsored research project on “Effects of Defects and Degradation Mechanisms in SiC and GaN Devices” to study the effect of structural defects in silicon carbide (SiC) on the performance and reliability of devices fabricated on them.

Studied the structure and properties of organic inclusion compounds particularly urea inclusion compounds (UICs) and their response to perturbative stresses, including photochemical bond cleavage, high electric fields, intense laser fields (NLO), and external anisotropic stresses.

Comprehensive characterization and evaluation of commercial zinc oxide (ZnO) substrates for electronic and optoelectronic applications.

National Aeronautics and Research Administration (NASA) sponsored research project on “Orbital Processing of High Quality CdTe Compound Semiconductors”

NASA sponsored project on “Growth of HgCdTe by the Traveling Heater Method (THM) in a Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF)”

NASA sponsored project on “Crystal Growth of ZnSe and Related Ternary Compound Semiconductors by Vapor Transport”

Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored “Consortium for Crystal Growth for integrated intelligent modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes”

Army Research Laboratory (ARL) sponsored project on piezoelectric materials

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Journal Publications

Sublimation growth of aluminum nitride on silicon carbide substrate with aluminum nitride-silicon carbide alloy transition layer Z. Gu, J. H. Edgar, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, D. Zhuang, Z. Sitar and D.W. Coffey JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, 22 (3), 675-680 (2007).

Seeded growth of AlN crystals on nonpolar seeds via physical vapor transport D. Zhuang, Z. G. Herro, R. Schlesser, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, Z. Sitar JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 35(7), 1513-1517 (2006).

Material quality characterization of CdZnTe substrates for HgCdTe epitaxy G. A. Carini, C. Arnone, A. E. Bolotnikov, G. S. Camarda, R. De Wames, J. H. Dinan, J. K. Markunas, B. Raghothamachar, S. Sivananthan, R. Smith, J. Zhao, Z. Zhong, R. B. James JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 35(6), 1495-1502 (2006).

Defect analysis in crystals using X-ray topography B. Raghothamachar, G. Dhanaraj, J. Bai, M. Dudley MICROSCOPY RESEARCH & TECHNIQUE, 69(5), 343-358 (2006).

Synchrotron white beam X-ray topography, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of defects and strain relaxation processes in wide band gap semiconductor crystals and thin films M. Dudley, J. Bai, X. Huang, W. M. Vetter, G. Dhanaraj, B. Raghothamachar MATERIALS SCIENCE IN SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING, 9(1-3), 315-322 (2006).

X-ray characterization of detached-grown germanium crystals M. P. Volz, M. Schweizer, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. Szoke, S. D. Cobb, F. R. Szofran JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 290(2), 446-451 (2006).

Crystal growth and characterization of thick GaN layers grown by oxide vapor transport technique P. Konkapaka, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, Y. Makarov, M. G. Spencer JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 289(1), 140-144 (2006).

Characterization of bulk grown GaN and AlN single crystal materials, B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, Z. Herro, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, B. Wang, M. Callahan, K. Rakes, P. Konkapaka, M. Spencer JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 287(2), 349-353 (2006).

Epitaxial growth and characterization of silicon carbide films G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley, Y, Chen, B. Raghothamachar, B. Wu, H. Zhang JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 287(2), 344-348 (2006).

Memory and Perfection in Ferroelastic Inclusion Compounds M. D. Hollingsworth, M. L. Peterson, J. R. Rush, M. E. Brown, M. J. Abel, A. Black, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, U. Werner-Zwanziger, E. Still, J. Vanecko CRYSTAL GROWTH & DESIGN, 5(6), 2100-2116 (2005).

Seeded growth of bulk AlN crystals and grain evolution in polycrystalline AlN boules V. Noveski, R. Schlesser, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, S. Mahajan, S. Beaudoin, Z. Sitar JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 279(1-2), 13-19 (2005).

Free nucleation of aluminum nitride single crystals in HPBN crucible by sublimation B. Liu, J. H. Edgar, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, A. Sarua, M. Kuball MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, B117 (1), 99-104 (2005).

Correlation between morphological defects, electron beam-induced current imaging, and the electrical properties of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes Y. Wang, G. N. Ali, M. K. Mikhov, V. Vaidyanathan, B. J. Skromme, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 97(1), 013540/1-013540/10 (2005).

The durability of various crucible materials for aluminum nitride crystal growth by sublimation B. Liu, J. H. Edgar, Z. Gu, D. Zhuang, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, A. Sarua, Martin Kuball, H. M. Meyer, III MRS INTERNET JOURNAL OF NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTOR RESEARCH, 9, 6 (2004).

Correlated structural and optical characterization of ammonothermally grown bulk GaN J. Bai, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Gouma, B. J. Skromme, L. Chen, P. J. Hartlieb, E. Michaels, J. W. Kolis APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 84(17), 3289-3291 (2004).

Fabrication of native, single-crystal AlN substrates L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, J. B. Whitlock, K. Morgan, S. B. Schujman, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, K. R. Evans PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI C: CONFERENCES AND CRITICAL REVIEWS, 0(7), 1997-2000 (2003).

The effect of the wall contact and post-growth cool-down on defects in CdTe crystals grown by 'contactless' physical vapour transport W. Palosz, K. Grasza, K. Durose, D. P. Halliday, N. M. Boyall, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, L. Cai JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 254(3-4), 316-328 (2003).

X-ray characterization of bulk AlN single crystals grown by the sublimation technique B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. C. Rojo, K. Morgan, L. J. Schowalter JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 250(1-2), 244-250 (2003).

Synchrotron white beam topography characterization of physical vapor transport grown AlN and ammonothermal GaN B. Raghothamachar, W. M. Vetter, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, E. Michaels, J. W. Kolis JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 246(3-4), 271-280 (2003).

Report on the growth of bulk aluminum nitride and subsequent substrate preparation J. Rojo, G. A. Slack, K. Morgan, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, L. J. Schowalter JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 231(3), 317-321 (2001).

Dependence of the direct dislocation image on sample-to-film distance in x-ray topography X. R. Huang, M. Dudley, J. Y. Zhao, B. Raghothamachar PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 357(1761), 2659-2670 (1999).

Characterization of Zn-alloyed CdTe compound semiconductors processed in microgravity on USML-1 and USML-2 D. J. Larson Jr., M. Dudley, H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, 22(8, Gravitational Effects in Fluid and Materials Science), 1179-1188 (1998).

The influence of polarity on twinning in zinc-blende structure crystals: new insights from a study of magnetic liquid encapsulated, Czochralski grown InP single crystals M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, Y. Guo, X. R. Huang, H. Chung, D. T. J. Hurle, D. F. Bliss JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 192(1/2), 1-10 (1998).

Effect of constrained growth on defect structures in microgravity grown CdZnTe boules B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr. JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 27(6), 556-563 (1998).

Characterization of cadmium-zinc telluride crystals grown by 'contactless' PVT using synchrotron white beam topography W. Palosz, D. Gillies, K. Grasza, H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, 182(1/2), 37-44 (1997).

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Proceedings

Effects of different defect types on the performance of devices fabricated on a 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer H. Chen, B. Raghothamachar, W. Vetter, M. Dudley, Y. Wang, B. J. Skromme MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 911 (Silicon Carbide 2006 - Materials, Processing and Devices - Michael Dudley, Michael A. Capano, Tsunenobu Kimoto, Adrian R. Powell, Shaoping Wang, editors), 169-174 (2006).

Structural Characterization of Bulk AlN Single Crystals Grown from Self-Seeding and Seeding by SiC Substrates B. Raghothamachar, R. Dalmau, M. Dudley, R. Schlesser, D. Zhuang, Z. Herro, Z. Sitar MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, 527-529 (Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005), 1521-1524 (2006).

Strain relaxation in GaN/AlN films grown on vicinal and on-axis SiC substrates J. Bai, X. Huang, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, B. Wagner, R. F. Davis, L. Wu, Y. Zhu MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, 527-529 (Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005), 1513-1516 (2006).

The Effect of Aluminum Nitride-Silicon Carbide Alloy Buffer Layers on the Sublimation Growth of Aluminum Nitride on SiC (0001) Substrates Z. Gu, J.H. Edgar, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, D. Zhuang, Z. Sitar MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, 527-529 (Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2005), 1497-1500 (2006).

Synchrotron X-ray topographic characterization of defects in InP bulk crystals G. Dhanaraj, B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, H. Chung, M. Dudley IEEE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS- 2005 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS, 643-648 (2006). Structural characterization of GaN single crystal layers grown by vapor transport from a gallium oxide (Ga2O3) powder source B. Raghothamachar, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu, M. Dudley, M. Spencer MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 892 (GaN, AlN, InN and Related Materials 2005 - Martin Kuball, Thomas H. Myers, Joan M. Redwing, Takashi Mukai, editors), 781-786, (2006).

Crystal growth and defect characterization of AlN single crystals S. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, A. G. Timmerman MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 892 (GaN, AlN, InN and Related Materials - Martin Kuball, Thomas H. Myers, Joan M. Redwing, Takashi Mukai, editors), 775-780, (2006).

Crystal growth of CdTe by gradient freeze in universal multizone crystallizator (UMC) C-H. Su, S. L. Lehoczky, C. Li, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. Szoke, P. Barczy MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, 508 (Solidification and Gravity IV), 117-123 (2006).

Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) and High Resolution Triple Axis Diffraction Studies on AlN layers Grown on 4H- and 6H-SiC Seeds B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 831 (GaN, AlN, InN and their Alloys – 2004 - Christian Wetzel, Bernard Gil, Masaaki Kuzuhara, Michael Manfra, editors), 447-452, (2005).

X-ray Characterization of GaN Single Crystal Layers Grown by the Ammonothermal Technique on HVPE GaN Seeds and by the Sublimation Technique on Sapphire Seeds B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, B. Wang, M. Callahan, D. Bliss, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu, M. Spencer MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 831 (GaN, AlN, InN and their Alloys – 2004 - Christian Wetzel, Bernard Gil, Masaaki Kuzuhara, Michael Manfra, editors), 441-446 (2005).

Growth of AlN crystals by vaporization of Al and sublimation of AlN powder Z. Sitar, R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley IPAP CONFERENCE SERIES, 4(Proceedings of 21st Century COE Joint International Workshop on Bulk Nitrides, 2003), 41-45 (2004).

Fabrication of native, single-crystal AlN substrates L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, J. B. Whitlock, K. Morgan, S. B. Schujman, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, K. R. Evans IPAP CONFERENCE SERIES, 4(Proceedings of 21st Century COE Joint International Workshop on Bulk Nitrides, 2003), 38-40 (2004).

A study on dendritic web silicon growth X. Zhang, B. Raghothamachar, D. L. Meier, M. Dudley, S. Mahajan 13TH WORKSHOP ON CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELL MATERIALS AND PROCESSES, EXTENDED ABSTRACTS AND PAPERS, (editor: Bhushan L. Sopori), p73-76, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (2003).

Crucible selection in AlN bulk crystal growth R. Dalmau, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 798 (GaN and Related Alloys—2003 - Hock Min Ng, Michael Wraback, Kazumasa Hiramatsu, Nicolas Grandjean, editors), 287-291 (2004).

Characterization of porous SiC substrates and of the epilayer structures grown on them B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, W. M. Vetter, P. Gouma, M. Dudley, M .Mynbaeva, M. T. Smith, S. E. Saddow MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 742 (Silicon Carbide 2002--Materials, Processing and Devices - Stephen E. Saddow, David J. Larkin, Nelson S. Saks, Adolf Schoener, editors), 109-114 (2003).

Progress in the preparation of aluminum nitride substrates from bulk crystals J. C. Rojo, L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, K. Morgan, J. Barani, S. Schujman, S. Biswas, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, M. Shur, R. Gaska, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 722 (Materials and Devices for Optoelectronics and Microphotonics - Ralf B. Wehrspohn, Reinhard März, Susumu Noda, Costas Soukoulis, editors), 5-13 (2002).

Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride Substrate Preparation from Bulk Crystals J. C. Rojo, L. J. Schowalter, K. Morgan, D. I. Florescu, F. H. Pollak, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 680E (Wide Bandgap Electronics - T. E. Kazior, P. Parikh, C.Nguyen, E. T. Yu, editors) E2.1.1 – E2.1.7 (2001).

X-ray characterization of bulk InP:S crystals grown by LEC in a low thermal gradient D. F. Bliss, G. Bryant, G. Antypas, B. Raghothamachar, G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley, J. Zhao IEEE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS- 1999 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS, 530-533 (2000). Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography studies of structural defects in microgravity-grown CdZnTe single crystals B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr ADVANCES IN X-RAY ANALYSIS, 41, 195-202 (1999).

Orbital processing of high-quality Zn-alloyed CdTe compound semiconductors D. J. Larson Jr., M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, B.; J. I. D. Alexander, F. M. Carlson, D. Gillies, M. Volz, T. M. Ritter, D. DiMarzio NASA CONFERENCE PUBLICATION, 209092 (NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference, 1998), 409-410 (1999).

The mechanism of twinning in zincblende structure crystals: new insights on polarity effects from a study of magnetic liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown InP single crystals M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, Y. Guo, X. R. Huang, H. Chung, D. J. Larson Jr., D. T. J. Hurle, D. F. Bliss, V. Prasad, Z. Huang MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 524 (Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques to Materials Science IV), 65-70 (1998).

Studies of interface demarcation and structural defects in Ga doped Ge single crystals using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, W. Zhou, M. Dudley, D. C. Gillies MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 437 (Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques to Materials Science III), 107-112 (1996).

Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography characterization of structural defects in microgravity and ground-based CdZnTe crystals H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SPIE-INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF OPTICAL ENGINEERS, 2809 (Space Processing of Materials), 45-56 (1996).

Characterization of growth defects in CdZnTe single crystals by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, J. Wu, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr., D. C. Gillies MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, 378 (Defect and Impurity Engineered Semiconductors and Devices), 41-6 (1995).

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Conference Presentations

Characterization of growth defects in CdZnTe single crystals by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, J. Wu, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr and D. C. Gillies Symposium on Defect and Impurity Engineered Semiconductors and Devices (S. Ashok, I. Akasaki, J. Chevallier, N.M. Johnson, B. L. Sopori, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) SPRING MEETING April 17-21, 1995, San Francisco, CA.

Studies of interface demarcation and structural defects in Ga doped Ge single crystals using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, W. Zhou, M. Dudley and D. C. Gillies Symposium on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques to Materials Science III (Louis Terminello, Susan Mini, Dale L. Perry, Harald Ade, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) SPRING MEETING April 8-12, 1996, San Francisco, CA.

Characterization of Zn-alloyed CdTe compound semiconductors processed in microgravity on USML-1 and USML-2 D. J. Larson Jr., M. Dudley, H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, Symposium on Gravitational Effects in Fluid and Materials Science 31ST COMMITTEE ON SPACE RESEARCH (COSPAR) SCIENTIFIC ASSEMBLY July 14-21, 1996, University of Birmingham, UK.

Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography characterization of structural defects in microgravity and ground-based CdZnTe crystals H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and D. J. Larson Jr. Symposium on Space Processing of Materials (Narayanan Ramachandran, editor) SPIE ANNUAL MEETING Aug. 4-9, 1996, Denver, CO.

Synchrotron Characterization of Zn-alloyed CdTe Compound Semiconductors Processed in Microgravity on STS-50 and 73 D.J. Larson, Jr., M. Dudley, H. Chung, and B. Raghothamachar Symposium on Characterization of Defects, Microstructure and Texture (R. Koehler, organizer) SEVENTEENTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, August 8-17, 1996, Seattle, WA.

Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography studies of structural defects in microgravity-grown CdZnTe single crystals B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D. J. Larson Jr. 1997 X-TOP Symposium on High Resolution Diffraction and X-ray Topography 46TH ANNUAL DENVER X-RAY CONFERENCE AND XTOP August 4-8, 1997, Steamboat Springs, CO.

Crystal Growth and Characterization of Microgravity Grown CdZnTe Compound Semiconductors B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley, D. J. Larson Jr. THE EASTERN REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH & EPITAXY (ACCGE/EAST-97) (hosted by The Mid Atlantic Section, The New England Section and The Pittsburgh Chapter of The American Association for Crystal Growth) September 29-October 1, 1997, Atlantic City, NJ.

Effect of constrained growth on defect structures in microgravity grown CdZnTe boules B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D. J. Larson Jr. US WORKSHOP ON THE PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF II-VI MATERIALS Oct. 21-23, 1997, Santa Barbara, CA.

The Mechanism of Twinning in Zincblende Structure Crystals: New Insights on Polarity Effects from a Study of Magnetic Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski Grown InP Single Crystals M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, Y. Guo, X.R. Huang, H. Chung, D.J. Larson, Jr., D.T.J. Hurle, D.F. Bliss, V. Prasad, and Z. Huang Symposium on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Materials Science VI (Susan Mini, Dale Perry, Stuart Stock, Louis Terminello, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) SPRING MEETING April 13-17, 1998, San Francisco, CA.

X-ray characterization of bulk InP:S crystals grown by LEC in a low thermal gradient D. F. Bliss, G. Bryant, G. Antypas, B. Raghothamachar, G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley, J. Zhao Session on Manufacturing Issues in Crystal Growth 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS (IPRM) 14-18 May 2000, Williamsburg, VA.

Report on the growth of bulk aluminum nitride and subsequent substrate preparation J. Rojo, G. A. Slack, K. Morgan, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, L. J. Schowalter Session on Bulk AlN INTERNATIONAL SPECIALIST MEETING ON BULK NITRIDE GROWTH AND RELATED TECHNIQUES November 12-16, 2000, Foz do Iguaç´u, Brazil.

X-ray characterization of structural defects in seeded and self-seeded ZnSe crystals grown by PVT in horizontal and vertical configurations B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and C.-H. Su AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-13) Aug. 12-16, 2001, Burlington, VT.

X-ray characterization of THM-grown HgCdTe crystals in a rotating magnetic field (RMF) B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and D. C. Gillies AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-13) Aug. 12-16, 2001, Burlington, VT.

Characterization of Defect and Strain Configurations in Langanite and Langatate Single Crystals using Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography and Assessment of their Influence on Resonator Performance M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, H. Chen, A.J. Khan, S. Tiddrow, and C. Fazi 14TH EUROPEAN FREQUENCY AND TIME FORUM March 14-16, 2000, Turin, Italy.

Diagnostic Synchrotron Topographic Imaging of Striations and other Defects in Langatate and Langanite Single Crystals and Assessment of their Influence on Resonator Performance M. Dudley, H. Chen, C. Fazi, W. Johnson, A. Khan, B. Raghothamachar, S. Tidrow 15TH EUROPEAN FREQUENCY AND TIME FORUM March 6-8, 2001, Neuchatel, Switzerland.

Synchrotron White Beam Topography (SWBXT) Characterization of Physical Vapor Transport Grown AlN and Ammonothermal GaN M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, W.M. Vetter, H. Zhang, R. Ma, Z. Sitar, R. Schlesser, J.W. Kolis and E. Michaels 7TH WIDE BANDGAP III-NITRIDE WORKSHOP March 10-14, 2002, Richmond, VA, USA.

Synchrotron white beam topography characterization of physical vapor transport grown AlN and ammonothermal GaN B. Raghothamachar, W. M. Vetter, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, E. Michaels, J. W. Kolis Session on Bulk Growth Processes and Crystal Properties INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BULK NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTORS May 18-23, 2002, Ariau, Brazil.

Progress in the preparation of aluminum nitride substrates from bulk crystals J. C. Rojo, L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, K. Morgan, J. Barani, S. Schujman, S. Biswas, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, M. Shur, R. Gaska, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl

Symposium on Materials and Devices for Optoelectronics and Photonics (John E. Cunningham, Leo J. Schowalter, Shun Lien Chuang, Yong-Hang Zhang, Hong Q. Hou, Lionel M. Levinson, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) SPRING MEETING April 1-5, 2002, San Francisco, CA.

Characterization of porous SiC substrates and of the epilayer structures grown on them B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, W. M. Vetter, P. Gouma, M. Dudley, M .Mynbaeva, M. T. Smith, S. E. Saddow Symposium on Silicon Carbide 2002--Materials, Processing and Devices (Stephen E. Saddow, David J. Larkin, Nelson S. Saks, Adolf Schoener, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING Dec. 2-6, 2002, Boston, MA.

X-ray characterization of bulk AlN single crystals grown by the sublimation technique B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. C. Rojo, K. Morgan, L. J. Schowalter, Session on Characterization AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-14) August 4-9, 2002, Seattle, WA.

Fabrication of native, single-crystal AlN substrates L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, J. B. Whitlock, K. Morgan, S. B. Schujman, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, K. R. Evans, 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NITRIDE SEMICONDUCTORS (ICNS-5) 25-30 May 2003, Nara, Japan.

X-ray characterization of bulk AlN crystals grown by the sublimation method and bulk GaN crystals grown by the ammonothermal and Na-flux methods B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, E. Michaels, J. Kolis, C. Hoffman, F. DiSalvo Session on Characterization AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-15) July 20-24, 2003, Keystone, CO.

A study on dendritic web silicon growth X. Zhang, B. Raghothamachar, D. L. Meier, M. Dudley, S. Mahajan, 13TH WORKSHOP ON CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELL MATERIALS AND PROCESSES (Chair: Bhushan L. Sopori) August 10-13, 2003, Vail, CO.

Growth of AlN crystals by vaporization of Al and sublimation of AlN powder Z. Sitar, R. Schlesser, R. Dalmau, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley Session on Bulk Nitride Growth and Wafering 21ST CENTURY CENTER OF EXCELLENCE (COE) JOINT INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BULK NITRIDES June 2 & 3, 2003, Tokyo, Japan.

Fabrication of native, single-crystal AlN substrates L. J. Schowalter, G. A. Slack, J. B. Whitlock, K. Morgan, S. B. Schujman, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, K. R. Evans Session on Bulk Nitride Growth and Wafering 21ST CENTURY CENTER OF EXCELLENCE (COE) JOINT INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BULK NITRIDES June 2 & 3, 2003, Tokyo, Japan.

Combined TEM and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of bulk GaN grown by the ammonothermal growth method J. Bai, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, P. Gouma, B. Skromme, L. Chen, J. Kolis, E. Michaels, P. Hartlieb 8TH WIDE-BANDGAP III-NITRIDE WORKSHOP September 29 – October 1, 2003, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Growth of Bulk AlN Crystals by Physical Vapor Transport V. Noveski, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, S. Mahajan, S. Beaudoin, Z. Sitar, Session on Development of III-Nitride Substrates 8TH WIDE-BANDGAP III-NITRIDE WORKSHOP September 29 – October 1, 2003, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Part I: X-ray Characterization of Bulk Grown AlN Single Crystals. Part II: Structural defect characterization of sublimation grown AlN substrates by white beam x-ray topography and high resolution x-ray diffraction Balaji Raghothamachar, Michael Dudley, Rafael Dalmau, Vlado Noveski, Raoul Schlesser, Zlatko Sitar Session on Development of III-Nitride Substrates 8TH WIDE-BANDGAP III-NITRIDE WORKSHOP September 29 – October 1, 2003, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Crucible selection in AlN bulk crystal growth R. Dalmau, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar Session on GaN and Related Alloys (Hock Min Ng, Kazumasa Hiramatsu, Nicolas Grandjean, Michael Wraback, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING November 30 – December 5, 2003, Boston, MA.

Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) and High Resolution Triple Axis Diffraction Studies on AlN layers Grown on 4H- and 6H-SiC Seeds B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar Symposium on GaN, AlN, InN, and Their Alloys (Christian Wetzel, Bernard Gil, Michael Manfra, Masaaki Kuzuhara, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING, Nov. 28-Dec. 3, 2004, Boston, MA.

X-ray Characterization of GaN Single Crystal Layers Grown by the Ammonothermal Technique on HVPE GaN Seeds and by the Sublimation Technique on Sapphire Seeds B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, B. Wang, M. Callahan, D. Bliss, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu, M. Spencer Symposium on GaN, AlN, InN, and Their Alloys (Christian Wetzel, Bernard Gil, Michael Manfra, Masaaki Kuzuhara, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING, Nov. 28 - Dec. 3, 2004, Boston, MA.

Crystal growth of CdTe by gradient freeze in universal multizone crystallizator (UMC) C-H. Su, S. L. Lehoczky, C. Li, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. Szoke, P. Barczy FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLIDIFICATION AND GRAVITY September 6 - 9, 2004, Miskolc-Lillafüred, Hungary.

Synchrotron X-ray topographic characterization of defects in InP bulk crystals G. Dhanaraj, B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, H. Chung, M. Dudley 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIUM PHOSPHIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS May 8-12, 2005, Glasgow, Scotland.

Crystal Engineering, Crystal Growth and Memory Effects in Ferroelastics and Ferroelectrics M. D. Hollingsworth, J. R. Rush, M. L. Peterson, M. J. Abel, A. Black, D. A. Kesselring, A. G. Butenhoff, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar Session on Crystal-Level Engineering DESIGNING NON-TRADITIONAL MATERIALS BASED ON GEOMETRICAL PRINCIPLES 19-22 June 2005, Hanover, Germany.

Static Versus Dynamic Surface Roughening in the Crystal Growth of Channel Inclusion Compounds M. D. Hollingsworth, M. L. Peterson, J. R. Rush, M. E. Brown, M. J. Abel, A. Black, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, U. Werner-Zwanziger, E. Still Session on Biocrystallization AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-16) July 10-15, 2005, Big Sky, MT.

Characterization of bulk grown GaN and AlN single crystal materials B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, Z. Herro, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, B. Wang, M. Callahan, K. Rakes, P. Konkapaka, M. Spencer Session on Bulk Growth of Wide Bandgap Semiconductors AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-16) July 10-15, 2005, Big Sky, MT.

X-ray characterization of detached-grown germanium crystals M. P. Volz, M. Schweizer, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, J. Szoke, S. D. Cobb, F. R. Szofran AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-16) July 10-15, 2005, Big Sky, MT.

Epitaxial growth and characterization of silicon carbide films G. Dhanaraj, M. Dudley, Y, Chen, B. Raghothamachar, B. Wu, H. Zhang Session on Silicon Carbide AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON CRYSTAL GROWTH AND EPITAXY (ACCGE-16) July 10-15, 2005, Big Sky, MT.

Structural Characterization of Bulk AlN Single Crystals Grown from Self-Seeding and Seeding by SiC Substrates B. Raghothamachar, R. Dalmau, M. Dudley, R. Schlesser, D. Zhuang, Z. Herro, Z. Sitar Session on Related Materials INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS (ICSCRM) Sept. 18-23, 2005, Pittsburgh, PA.

Strain relaxation in GaN/AlN films grown on vicinal and on-axis SiC substrates J. Bai, X. Huang, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, B. Wagner, R. F. Davis, L. Wu, Y. Zhu Session on Related Materials INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS (ICSCRM) Sept. 18-23, 2005, Pittsburgh, PA.

The Effect of Aluminum Nitride-Silicon Carbide Alloy Buffer Layers on the Sublimation Growth of Aluminum Nitride on SiC (0001) Substrates Z. Gu, J.H. Edgar, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, D. Zhuang, Z. Sitar Session on Bulk Growth INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS (ICSCRM) Sept. 18-23, 2005, Pittsburgh, PA.

Synchrotron white beam X-ray topography, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of defects and strain relaxation processes in wide band gap semiconductor crystals and thin films M. Dudley, J. Bai, X. Huang, W. M. Vetter, G. Dhanaraj, B. Raghothamachar Session on Nanostructures and X-ray based Techniques 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEFECTS – RECOGNITION, IMAGING AND PHYSICS IN SEMICONDUCTORS (DRIP-XI) September 15-19, 2005, Beijing, China.

Material quality characterization of CdZnTe substrates for HgCdTe epitaxy G. A. Carini, C. Arnone, A. E. Bolotnikov, G. S. Camarda, R. De Wames, J. H. Dinan, J. K. Markunas, B. Raghothamachar, S. Sivananthan, R. Smith, J. Zhao, Z. Zhong, R. B. James 2005 U.S. WORKSHOP ON THE PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF II-VI MATERIALS September 20-22, 2005, Boston, MA.

Structural characterization of GaN single crystal layers grown by vapor transport from a gallium oxide (Ga2O3) powder source B. Raghothamachar, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu, M. Dudley, M. Spencer Symposium on GaN, AlN, InN, and Related Materials (Martin Kuball, Thomas H. Myers, Joan M. Redwing, Takashi Mukai, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING Nov. 27-Dec. 1, 2005, Boston, MA.

Crystal growth and defect characterization of AlN single crystals S. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, A. G. Timmerman Symposium on GaN, AlN, InN, and Related Materials (Martin Kuball, Thomas H. Myers, Joan M. Redwing, Takashi Mukai, organizers) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) FALL MEETING Nov. 27-Dec. 1, 2005, Boston, MA.

Effects of different defect types on the performance of devices fabricated on a 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer H. Chen, B. Raghothamachar, W. Vetter, M. Dudley, Y. Wang, B. J. Skromme Symposium on Silicon Carbide - Materials, Processing, and Devices (Michael A. Capano, Michael Dudley , Tsunenobu Kimoto, Adrian R. Powell, Shaoping Wang) MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY (MRS) SPRING MEETING April 17-21, 2006, San Francisco, CA.

Characterization of Defects in Zinc Oxide Single Crystals B. Raghothamachar, G. Dhanaraj, Y. Chen, H. Chen, M. Dudley, M. J. Callahan, E. Grant, B. Wang Session on P-Type Doping and Electroluminescence in ZnO 2006 ELECTRONIC MATERIALS CONFERENCE (EMC) June 28-30, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

A comparative study of free standing zinc oxide substrates M. J. Callahan, L. O. Bouthillette, G. Dhanaraj, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, B. Wang Session on ZnO Bulk and Photonic Crystals Symposium on Zinc Oxide Materials and Devices SPIE PHOTONICS WEST January 20-25, 2007, San Jose, CA.

Poster Presentations at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Annual Users’ Meeting Characterization of Growth Defects in CdZnTe Single Crystals by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D.J. Larson, Jr. 1995 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 7-10, 1995, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography Studies of Twinning Mechanisms in CdZnTe Single Crystals H. Chung, B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and D.J. Larson, Jr. 1995 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 7-10, 1995, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Study of The Influence of Post-Solidification Cooling Rate on Crystalline Perfection of CdZnTe Single Crystals By Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley, and D.J. Larson, Jr. 1995 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 7-10, 1995, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Comparison between Microgravity Grown and Terrestrially Grown CdZnTe Single Crystals by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D. Larson Jr. 1996 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 20-22, 1996, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Studies of Interface Demarcation in Ga doped Ge Single Crystals by Synchrotron White Beam X-Ray Topography B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, W. Zhou, M. Dudley and D.C. Gillies 1996 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 20-22, 1996, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Synchrotron X-ray Topography Studies on Defects in Bridgman-Stockbarger Grown CdZnTe Single Crystals Surface X-ray Topography of CdZnTe Boules Grown in Microgravity B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D. Larson, Jr. 1997 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 19-21, 1997, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Characterization of Structural Defects in Vapor Grown CdTe and CdZnTe Single Crystals by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and W. Palosz 1997 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 19-21, 1997, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Absolute Determination of Polarity of (111) planes in CdTe Single Crystals by X-ray Anomalous Scattering B. Raghothamachar, Z. Huang and M. Dudley 1998 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 18-20, 1998, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Effect of Constrained Growth on Defect Structures in Microgravity-Grown CdZnTe Boules B. Raghothamachar, H. Chung, M. Dudley and D. Larson, Jr. 1998 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 18-20, 1998, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Characterization of structural defects in Langasite, Langanite and Langatate Single Crystals by SWBXT B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and C. Fazi 1999 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 24-26, 1999, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Effects of applying a Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) during THM growth of HgCdTe crystals: A SWBXT Study B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, D. C. Gillies, M. Volz, S. Motakef, S. Yesilyurt, J. C. Cochrane, P. Carpenter, K. Mazuruk, R. Matyi and H. Volz 1999 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 24-26, 1999, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Characterization of structural defects in ZnSe boules grown by PVT in vertical and horizontal configurations B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, C.-H. Su and S. Feth 1999 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 24-26, 1999, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Studies on Twinning Mechanisms in ZnSe boules grown by PVT method B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, C.-H. Su and S. Feth 1999 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 24-26, 1999, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Effect of cooling rate on defect structures in CdTe single crystals B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley and W. Palosz 2000 NSLS Users’ Meeting and Workshops, May 22-24, 2000, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

SWBXT Characterization of Bulk AlN Crystals B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, C. Rojo, L. J. Schowalter, K. Morgan 2001 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 21-24, 2001, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Characterization of Structural Defects in Sublimation grown AlN Single Crystals by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, H. Zhang, B. Wu, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser and Z. Sitar 2002 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 20-22, 2002, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

SWBXT Characterization of GaN Single Crystals Grown by the Ammonothermal Method B. Raghothamachar, W. Vetter M. Dudley, E. Michaels and J. W. Kolis 2002 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 20-22, 2002, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

X-ray Characterization of AlN and GaN Bulk Single Crystals Grown by various methods B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, H. Zhang, B. Wu, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, E. Michaels, J. W. Kolis, C. Hoffman and F. DiSalvo. 2003 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 19-21, 2003, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

X-ray Characterization of AlN and GaN Bulk Single Crystals B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, V. Noveski, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu, M. Spencer, M. Callahan, B. Wang and D. Bliss 2004 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 17-20, 2004, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Structural Evaluation of GaN and AlN Substrates for Fabrication of Nitride Based Devices B. Raghothamachar, J. Bai, M. Dudley, R. Dalmau, D. Zhuang, Z. Herro, R. Schlesser, Z. Sitar, M. Callahan, B. Wang, D. Bliss, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu and M. Spencer. 2005 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 23-25, 2005, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

Structural Characterization of GaN single crystal layers grown by vapor transport from a gallium oxide (Ga2O3) powder source B. Raghothamachar, M. Dudley, P. Konkapaka, H. Wu and M. Spencer. 2006 NSLS Users’ Meeting, May 15-17, 2006, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.

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Education

Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy) (June 1997 – May 2001)
Materials Science & Engineering
Stony Brook University
Stony Brook, NY
U. S. A.

M. S. (Master of Science) (August 1993 – May 1997)
Materials Science & Engineering
Stony Brook University
Stony Brook, NY

B. Tech (Bachelor of Technology) (July 1989 – April 1993)
Metallurgical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Mumbai, India

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